The working principle and structure of laser marking machine
1、 The working principle of laser marking machine
Laser marking machines use laser beams to permanently mark the surfaces of various substances. The effect of marking is to expose the deep substances to “carve” and show traces through the evaporation of surface substances or the chemical Physical change of surface substances caused by light energy, or show the patterns and words to be etched by burning some substances with light energy.
The recognized working principles are:
“Hot working” has a laser beam with high energy density (it is a concentrated energy flow), which irradiates on the surface of the processed material. The surface of the material absorbs the laser energy, generating the whole process of thermal excitation in the irradiation area, thus causing the temperature of the material surface (or coating) to rise, resulting in metamorphosis, melting, ablation, evaporation and other phenomena.
“Cold processing” has a high load of energy (ultraviolet) photons, which can cut off the Chemical bond in raw materials (especially organic materials) or surrounding media until the raw materials are destroyed in the whole process of non thermal. This kind of cold processing has special significance in the process of laser marking processing, because it is not thermal ablation, but cold stripping that does not produce “thermal damage” side effects and cut off Chemical bond, so it will not produce heating or thermal deformation and other effects on the inner layer and surrounding areas of the surface to be processed. For example, in electronic manufacturing, excimer lasers are used to stack chemical thin films on substrate materials, and narrow grooves are made on semiconductor silicon chips.
2、 Structure of laser marking machine
1. Laser power supply
The laser power supply of the fiber laser marking machine is a device that provides power for the fiber laser, with an input voltage of AC220V AC current. Installed in the control box of the laser marking machine.
2. Fiber laser
The fiber laser marking machine adopts an imported pulse type fiber laser, which has a good and durable output laser mode and is designed to be installed inside the body of the laser marking machine.
3. Galvanometer scanning system
The galvanometer scanning system consists of two parts: an optical scanner and a servo control. All systems are designed and manufactured using cutting-edge technologies, new materials, new production processes, and new principles.
The optical scanner applies an AC servo motor with dynamic magnetic deflection working mode. It has advantages such as large scanning angle, high peak torque, large load inertia, small electromechanical time constant, fast operation speed, stability, safety, and reliability. The precision bearing clearance elimination structure provides ultra-low axial and radial runout errors; The “electronic torsion bar” replaces the traditional elastic material torsion bar, further improving its service life and long-term stability; The principle of zero power maintenance at any position not only reduces the loss of application functions, but also reduces the heating effect of components, eliminating the need for constant temperature devices; The cutting-edge high stability precision position detection sensing technology provides high linearity, high resolution, high repeatability, and low drift performance.
Optical scanners can be divided into X-axis scanning systems and Y-axis scanning systems, with laser reflective lenses fixed on each servo motor axis. Each servo motor is controlled by a digital signal from an electronic computer to control its scanning trajectory.
4. Focusing system
The function of the focusing system is to focus a parallel laser beam at a point. Usually, f is used- θ Lens, different f- θ The focal length of the lens is different, and the laser marking effect and range are also different. The fiber laser marking machine adopts an imported high-performance focusing system, with a standard lens focal length of f=160mm, which has an effective scanning range Φ 110mm. Users can choose the model of lens according to their actual situation.
Optional F- θ The lens includes:
F=100mm, effective focusing range Φ 65mm.
F=160mm, effective focusing range Φ 110mm.
5. Electronic computer control system
The electronic computer control system is the core of control and command for all laser marking machines, and it is also the medium for program installation. Based on the coordinated control of the sound and light allocation system and the galvanometer scanning system, the laser marking processing of product workpieces is achieved.
The electronic computer control system of the optical fiber laser marking machine mainly includes the main box, computer motherboard, CPU, computer hard disk, computer memory module, D/A card, optical drive, display screen, Computer keyboard, computer mouse, etc.
3、 What materials can laser marking machine mark
1. The laser marking machine can carve metal materials and various non-metallic materials. It is more suitable for production and processing of products with detailed and high-precision requirements.
2. It is used in electronic components, integrated circuits (IC), electrical appliances, Mobile phone accessories, metal products, tool accessories, precision equipment, glasses, watches, jewelry, auto parts, plastic Control key, building materials, pvc plastic pipes, medical equipment and other industries.
3. Available materials include: ordinary metal materials and alloy materials (all metal materials such as iron, copper, aluminum, magnesium, zinc, etc.), rare metal and alloy materials (gold, silver, titanium), metal oxides (all kinds of metal oxides are available), special surface treatment (phosphating treatment, aluminum anodizing, electroplating surface), ABS materials (electrical appliance shells, Household goods), ink (translucent Control key, printing products), Epoxy resin adhesive (packaging and insulation layer of electronic components).
4. Different types of laser marking machines should be used for different raw materials. Non metallic materials such as wood, fabric, acrylic, paper, plastic, leather, PVC, etc. generally use carbon dioxide CO2 laser marking machines, while metal materials such as aluminum, copper, gold, silver, aluminum oxide, stainless steel, galvanized, zinc alloy, etc. typically use fiber optic laser marking machines. In addition, there is a UV laser marking machine, which can laser mark materials such as PVC, rubber, plastic, aluminum, copper, and gold and silver.